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Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century.
The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542.
Doggerland was submerged by the North Sea and, by 8,000 BP, the British Peninsula had become an island.
John Davies has theorised that the story of Cantre'r Gwaelod's drowning and tales in the Mabinogion, of the waters between Wales and Ireland being narrower and shallower, may be distant folk memories of this time.
Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century.
Examples include the Cambrian Mountains (which cover much of Wales and gave their name to the Cambrian geological period), the newspaper Cambrian News, and the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art.
Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, which was once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd.
The Cumbric language, which is thought to have been closely related to Welsh, was spoken in this area until becoming extinct around the 12th century.
Cornwall) and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Celtic Britons (e.g.
Walworth in County Durham and Walton in West Yorkshire), The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era (after the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons) of the Welsh (Brythonic-speaking) people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland ("Yr Hen Ogledd") (English: In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh.